Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Question: Examine about the Cognitive Versus Learning Styles. Answer: Presentation: It is basic to comprehend that what are various styles of discovering that help their turn of events. Dunn and Dunn suggested many learning styles that help the learning exercises of the kids. The three learning styles are: Kina tasteful learning style: This learning style considers physical activity that help with learning. The reasoning and outlook of the kids is considered in this kind of learning. It helps the understudies to learn in genuine manner. In this the small kids learn new things by the distinctive body developments. The students that are connected with this learning style react in changed manner. They learn new stuffs by the developments and encounters. The activities that are related with this sort of learning are sensation, acting and the activities that ensure the advancement of the understudies (Nodoushan, 2014). Visual learning Style: In this kind of learning the little youngsters learn new things by appropriately observing the picture or the image. The kids just recollect the things which they see all over the place. They are solid in illuminating riddles, labyrinths and numerous different games. This learning style actuates the youngsters to learn and think in flighty way. This learning style accentuation on displaying more pictures and talks less. The image books and exercise manuals help them to build their learning design (Truong, 2016). Sound-related Learning style: In this sort of learning the small kids learns through tuning in. The sound-related student thinks about hearing and talking as a primary premise of learning. The students can hear in viable manner and it is hard to take the directions that are drawn. The evaluator student learns new things just by hearing and tuning in. They do well in the oral tests and they tune in to the data in compelling way. They are acceptable narrator. The students take care of the issues by talking. The little youngsters learn new things and grow new things by hearing and tuning in to the data in viable and in productive manner. By listening the little youngsters improve their insight in successful manner that gives advantage in future. It causes them to upgrade their reasoning capacity so they can act in compelling manner. The innovation is utilized to upgrade the learning style of the little youngsters. There are numerous innovations that are utilized by the little youngsters. They utilize the innovation to upgrade their learning aptitudes in compelling manner. It not just causes them to expand their learning design yet additionally help them to save the information for long time. Presently a days innovation assumed an incredible job in expanding the information on the kids. Energetic children are adequately splendid to take a shot at the gadget that redesigns their thinking limit just as improves their understanding. There are various progressions that are considered by the young children. The most recent and various advancements that are utilized by the kids are tablet, camera, PC and intuitive white board. Tablet: It is the most recent innovation that is utilized by the understudy to upgrade their learning capacity. It goes under visual learning style. The understudy adjusts new things or get data by watching the photographs and pictures. It also makes the understudy make and pass on convincing presentations. Understudy can lead progressing outline, forming and movement that save the period of learning as well as moreover gives improvement in learning. By watching new pictures the youths get pulled in towards it and that updates the learning configuration in convincing manner. (Buchanan, Sainter Saunders, 2013). Camera: It causes the understudy to improve their abilities in compelling way. The capacities can be overhauled by using camera. Camera will imagine the things that stay in the mind of energetic children for long time. It not simply gets the thought of the energetic youths yet moreover urges them to learn new things in essential manner. In this kina smart style can be contemplated in that the understudy use camera to learn new things. The physical improvement of the young children is related with this system. The activities are incorporated that can be simply done by using camera. Acting and show can be driven with the help of camera (Kirkwood Price, 2014). PC: This is the latest development that is considered by various understudies that redesigns the learning capacity of the understudy. With the use of compact PC the understudy can suitably learn and get data capably (Golonka, Bowles, Frank, Richardson and Freynik, 2014). It gets the thought of energetic youths just as makes them consider different things in exceptional manner. It is the basic technique that is used by various foundations and by watchmen to redesign the learning capacities of the adolescents. In this both sound-related and visual learning style are thought of. The young children can without a very remarkable stretch see and imagine the photographs in convincing manner and moreover they can check out various things that improve the learning of the energetic children (Shah, Ahmed, Shenoy Srikant, 2017). Intelligent white board: It is the most mainstream learning strategy among the understudies. It is an intelligent board that comprises of a dry eraser and furthermore LCD projector. The white board transforms into a PC screen that is appeared to the little youngsters. So the consideration of the youngsters can be gotten and they can learn and pick up information in powerful manner. This innovation makes the one PC study hall an intelligent class meeting that initiates the small kids to find out about new things (Anderson, 2016). Projectors: They are likewise utilized in the study hall from which the understudy can upgrade their insight in viable manner. The small kids get pulled in towards it and by this it improves their insight and the photos and pictures keep going long in their brain. It is both sound-related and visual discovering that upgrades the learning abilities of the small kids in powerful manner. It prompts little youngsters to acquire and more information about new things. It is an extremely valuable and well known source that is utilized universally (Rogowsky, Calhoun Tallal, 2015). References: Anderson, T. (2016). Speculations for learning with rising technologies.Emerging innovations in separation training. Buchanan, T., Sainter, P., Saunders, G. (2013). Variables influencing staff utilization of learning innovations: Implications for models of innovation adoption.Journal of Computing in Higher Education,25(1), 1-11. Golonka, E. M., Bowles, A. R., Frank, V. M., Richardson, D. L., Freynik, S. (2014). Innovations for unknown dialect learning: a survey of innovation types and their effectiveness.Computer Assisted Language Learning,27(1), 70-105. Kirkwood, A., Price, L. (2014). Innovation improved learning and instructing in advanced education: what is enhancedand how would we know? A basic writing review.Learning, media and technology,39(1), 6-36. Nodoushan, M. A. S. (2014). Psychological Versus Learning Styles: Emergence of the Ideal Education Model (IEM).i-Manager's Journal on Educational Psychology,8(2), 31. Rogowsky, B. A., Calhoun, B. M., Tallal, P. (2015). Coordinating learning style to instructional strategy: Effects on comprehension.Journal of instructive psychology,107(1), 64. Shah, K., Ahmed, J., Shenoy, N., Srikant, N. (2017). How extraordinary are understudies and their learning styles?.International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences,1(3), 212-215. Truong, H. M. (2016). Incorporating learning styles and versatile e-learning framework: Current turns of events, issues and opportunities.Computers in Human Behavior,55, 1185-1193.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
UN Convention on the Assignment of Receivables - Essay Example It, in all probability, is the uniform law show with the best effect on the law of overall trans-fringe trade, and in certain nations legal counselors and courts are today as acquainted with the Convention as they are with their local law - it is the most widely used language of deals. Some portion of the achievement is or may be because of the straightforward prerequisites of use of the Convention, encoded in articles 1 to 6, which have become a model followed in other universal shows or draft shows. They are basic in their fundamental structure, in spite of the fact that not without some dubious subtleties which require clarification. These application necessities will be the subject of this short prologue to the Convention.1 Article 1(1) (an) UN law for receivables requires just that the gatherings have their places of business in various contracting states that is states which have sanctioned the Convention. With 65 contracting states, presently numerous deals of U.K merchants with outside gatherings (for instance in Australia, Asia, the United States or Europe) are represented by the Convention. Neither the nationality of the gatherings nor their capability as dealers impacts the utilization of the Convention, despite the fact that buyer buys are quite often barred from the Convention. The gatherings' places of business in various states are, as such, definitive, so a U.K firm, having its important spot of business in Australia, while finishing up an agreement with a firm in Wellington, may discover its agreement administered by the UN law for receivables. Additionally, the agreement must be an offer of products, which typically doesn't present issues, yet there are marginal cases, with which I will bargain later, and a significant expansion to blended agreements under article 3(2) of the UN law for receivables. Gatherings in Different States The forerunners of the UN law for receivables, the purported Hague Sales Laws of 1964 - which were sanctioned by just nine states - utilized as the primary necessity for application just that the gatherings were living in various states, subsequently making it conceivable that parties from various states, which had not established the Uniform Sales Law, may have discovered their agreement represented by this uniform law outsider to them two and to their nations. Thusly, this imperialistic case of the old uniform deals laws was dismissed in the arrangement of the UN deals law, yet not entirely.2 Article 1(1)(b) states that the UN law for receivables [page 782] is relevant, if the gatherings are arranged in various states - which need not be contracting states, if the contention of law rules of the discussion lead to the utilization of the law of a contracting state. In this way, if there is an agreement between a Japanese and an English merchant subject - by virtue of a proviso in the agreement - to
Wednesday, August 19, 2020
What Are the Goals of Therapy for Specific Phobias Phobias Treatment Print The Goals of Phobia Treatment By Lisa Fritscher Lisa Fritscher is a freelance writer and editor with a deep interest in phobias and other mental health topics. Learn about our editorial policy Lisa Fritscher Updated on February 23, 2020 More in Phobias Treatment Causes Symptoms and Diagnosis Types If you have begun treatment or considering treatment for a phobia, you may be wondering how to determine the goals of your treatment. What do you hope will be accomplished by addressing your phobia? What changes in your life are you hoping will take place? The goals of therapy for phobia are to reduce or eliminate the symptoms so you can perform daily activities, including making and managing money, taking care of your household, and maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. Types of Phobia The type of treatment you receive depends on the type of phobia you have and the severity of your symptoms. There are three types of phobia: Agoraphobia involves a fear of situations in which you cant escape (such as leaving home, being alone at home, or being in a particular place such as a car or bus) and resultant avoidance behavior to prevent exposure to those fearful situations.Social phobia, now called social anxiety disorder or SAD, is a very common disorder involving anxiety which is out of proportion related to social situations. Unlike normal nervousness, those with social anxiety disorder find their anxiety interferes with their relationships with others and may affect their career as well.Specific phobia is well known to most people and involves an irrational fear of an object or situation. There is a multitude of different phobias such as claustrophobia (the fear of enclosed spaces) and often several different phobias occur together. While treatments for each type of phobia differ, the goals of treatment are to help you learn to manage your anxiety responses and function well in your daily life. A to Z: List of Phobias How Common Are Phobias? According to the National Institute of Mental Health, an estimated 9.1% of adults in the U.S. had a specific phobia in the past year.??Approximately 0.9% of adults experienced agoraphobia in the past year and around 1.3% will have this condition at some point in their lives. An estimated 7.1% of adults experienced social phobia (social anxiety disorder) in the past year.The severity of the phobia and the impact it has on life vary tremendously. What is common, however, is that a phobia often limits peoples life or prevents them from enjoying their life to the greatest degree possible. Phobia Treatment Goals A good mental health professional will customize a treatment plan for you, which may include both talk therapy and medication. A physician is more likely to add medication to agoraphobia or social phobia treatment plan than for a specific phobia. Specific Phobia Treatment Goals Your treatment goals for specific phobia are likely to be met through the cognitive behavior therapy method known as exposure therapy. During this desensitization process, the therapist will gradually expose you to stimuli related to your fear in a safe and controlled environment. Before the exposure process begins, people first learn relaxation techniques that they can use to remain calm when faced with the source of their fears. These techniques include deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and visualization. The next step is to practice using these relaxation strategies gradually and progressively in the face of the feared object or situation. Youll know youve reached your therapy goal when the distorted thinking that fuels your phobia diminishes to a functional level or disappears. Agoraphobia Treatment Goals Research suggests that combining cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with medication is an effective treatment for agoraphobia. Medications work to address symptoms of anxiety in the short-term, while CBT helps change the thoughts and feelings that contribute to panic and anxiety symptoms.?? The goals of agoraphobia treatment are to learn: Your fears are not likely to come trueYour anxiety will gradually decrease in public and that youre capable of managing your symptoms until they doThe factors that trigger your panic attacks, or panic-like symptoms, or make them worseTechniques to deal with your symptomsHow to change unwanted and unhealthy behaviors through self-guided desensitization techniques Social Phobia Treatment Goals Your treatment plan for social phobia is likely to include a combination of talk therapy, medication, and role-playing. The goals of treatment for social phobia, or social anxiety disorder, including helping you to: Change the negative thoughts you have about yourselfDevelop confidence in social situations, especially the ones you fear mostImprove your coping skills A medication commonly prescribed to help you reach your therapeutic objectives include: AntidepressantsAnti-anxiety medicationBeta-blockers A Word From Verywell The goals of therapy are essential to help you live your life fully without irrational thoughts and fears which interfere with your activities. You may begin with primary goals and advance to other goals as you reach your initial goals. Every person is different so it is hard to estimate how long it will take any one person to reach their personal goals of treatment, but research tells us that these goals are often attainableâ"even when it feels as if you could never face some of the situations that you now fear.? The 9 Best Online Therapy Programs
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Oscar Madera Dr. Amaya-Anderson ENGL 103 8 May 2016 Dissecting Gender Roles in A Streetcar Named Desire The representation of gender roles is among the most prominent recurring subjects in theatre, literature and expressive art as we know it. Gender, and what it means to human beings, is a subject that is as difficult to precisely define as death, race, and the concept of existence. Anne Beall, Ph.D. graduate in Social Psychology at Yale University, details in her book The Psychology of Gender that Ã¢â¬Å"Gender is socially defined masculinity and femininity. Social psychology studies how gender is defined, created, and maintained through social influence, especially in the course of social interactionÃ¢â¬ (Beall; 10). The nature of gender roles is ultimately dictated by temporal, societal, biological and even geographical dimensions that are out of our control and though it is a given that gender as a concept has kept as relevant as it is ancient, there has only been under a hundred years of significant progress or general awarene ss on the matter. The subject matter of important art in any given time period is a reflection of that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s most urgent struggles and the topic of gender has remained a constant across human history. The physical and emotional features of characters in art and literature are manifestations of the creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s perception on subjects such race and gender. The message that a creator seeks to deliver on a topic, determines how they will convey the thoughts,
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
William Edward Burkhardt DuBois, whom we all know as W.E.B. DuBois; was a novelist, public speaker, poet, editor, author, leader, teacher, scholar, and romantic. He graduated from high school at the age of 16, and was selected as the valedictorian, being that he was the only black in his graduating class of 12. He was orphaned shortly after his graduation and was forced to fund his own college education. He was a pioneer in black political thoughts and known by many as a main figure in the history of African-American politics. W.E.B. DuBois attended Fisk University, where he was awarded a scholarship after he graduated high school. Fisk University was located in Nashville, Tennessee. While attending this University, this is where he sawÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the years following the founding of the NAACP, DuBois was introduced into controversy as he joined the Socialists Party. DuBois became a candidate for the United States Senate on the American Labor (Communist) Party ti cket. He also wrote letters, novels, and opinion excerpts as well as organized the first meeting of the Pan-African Congress, the purpose of the Congress was to improve the situation of native Africans. DuBois also initiated the concept of the talented tenth the talented tenth was where he called for ten percent of the African American population where he lived to receive a traditional college education so they could have leadership positions and assume leadership positions within society and within their communities. Dr. W. E. B. DuBois was known as an African American hero who truly believed that a persons vocational calling should be dictated by ability and choice, not by race. DuBois, unlike Booker T. Washington, not only demanded an immediate change but also drastic change, and was not afraid to challenge both blacks and whites on social and educational issues to accomplish change because he knew at that point, something needed to happen now. His strong activism and courage set the stage for future changes in the African American and White American race relations. In 1934 DuBois resigned from the NAACP staff in simply because he was not willing to advocate racialShow MoreRelatedB. Dubois And Booker T. Washington Essay2331 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesW.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington The end of the Civil War was followed almost immediately by a new wave that would see the African Americans face great suffering and discrimination. As newly freed slaves, African Americans were presented with a dilemma to either curve a new niche in a society that once viewed and treated them as mere properties than humans. It was during these difficult times that two key figures in the African American History rose as paramount leaders of two sharply contrastingRead MorePoetrys Influences on the Harlem Renaissance2031 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesspent a year in Mexico with his father who disliked his passion for writing and urged him to stop. At that time Hughes was beginning to get published in a number of places like magazines and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s book. During this time he was noticed but W.E.B Dubois. Upon Hughes return to America he enrolled in Colombia University in New York. Hughes did not like the atmosphere at Colombia so after a year he left. After Columbia he moved to New Yo rk and began work on a freighter. This job took him to manyRead More The Civil Rights Movements in Ireland and America Essay4811 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagesof an oppressed people a civil rights movement was essential. Ã¢â¬Å"It was necessary to bravely confront our most explosive issues as a people: Racial[religious, gender, class...] hierarchy and the maldistribution of wealth and power.Ã¢â¬ 1If only for a brief moment we achieved this, at least it happened. We must study the past in order to get to the future. If you dont know where you came from, how can you possibly figure out where you are going and that is why many people stay rooted in the same placeRead MoreLena Horne9265 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesa triumph. Lena Mary Calhoun Horne was born June 30, 1917, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Both sides of her family claimed a mixture of African-Americans, Native Americans, and Caucasians, and both were part of what black leader W.E.B. DuBois called the talented tenth, the upper stratum of the American black population made up of middle-class, well-educated African-Americans. Her parents, however, might both be described as mavericks from that tradition. Her father, Edwin FletcherRead MoreHaving Our Say Essay9582 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesÃ ©2000-2011 BookRags, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The following sections of this BookRags Literature Study Guide is offprint from Gales For Students Series: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Works: Introduction, Author Biography, Plot Summary, Characters, Themes, Style, Historical Context, Critical Overview, Criticism and Critical Essays, Media Adaptations, Topics for Further Study, Compare Contrast, What Do I Read Next?, For Further Study, and Sources. (c)1998-2002;Read MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words Ã |Ã 102 Pagesassociating with whites in restaurants, theaters, and trains. If blacks were permitted to enter a facility, they had to use a separate entrance and sit in a separate section. Langston became an avid reader. His favorite magazine was Crisis, published by W.E.B. Du Bois, whose essays urged African Americans to preserve their heritage and to reject integration into the white community. Langstons favorite newspaper was the Chicago Defender, which published stories about racially motivated lynchings and otherRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesrequiredÃ¢â¬âinteraction between the colonial rulers and the local, colonized people in offices, shops, industries, and schools, although not as much in recreation. The results of this interaction were unpredictable. In addition to the social science literature, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, drama, and films are filled with the stories of indigenous people and colonial rulers who were transformed in one way or another through their interactions with the diverse residents and the institutions of the European
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Global Midterm review * Changes to map of Europe after WWI/WWII- new countries formed After WWI Only two completely new countries in Europe were formed after WW1 Ã¢â¬â Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Poland, which had been wiped off the map in 1795, was revived. The Baltic republics Ã¢â¬â Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania asserted their independence. We will write a custom essay sample on Ap Global Midterm Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now Romania doubled in size. After WWII To a great extent, no new countries were formed after World War II. Most of these changes occurred in the East. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, only just winning independence after WWI were erased as independent states and became part of the Soviet Union. PolandÃ¢â¬â¢s borders were moved eastward to include only the Ã¢â¬Å"corridorÃ¢â¬ from before the war but also parts of East Prussia, Pomerania, and Silesia, though they also lost the eastern parts of their country to the Soviet Union. Austria and Czechoslovakia, states created by the end of WWI but annexed to Nazi Germany in the 1930s reappeared, though Czechoslovakia was firmly under Soviet domination and the Austrians were forced to remain neutral during the growing Cold War. In Europe the only country divided was Germany. * Conservatism in western politics Conservatives, such as AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Prince Klemens von Metternich, were bent on maintaining the sanctity of traditional political institutions, particularly the monarchy. It was also their goal to maintain a balance of power in Europe in order to ensure a permanent peace. * Welfare state Welfare State and Consumer Society A. The motives for the welfare state 1. protection against depression and political extremism 2. the argument for social justice B. Features of the welfare state 1. support Ã¢â¬Ëfrom cradle to graveÃ¢â¬â¢ 2. educational and cultural opportunities C. The growth of consumer society 1. a new standard of living 2. materialism and hedonism 3. the end of public life? * Nuclear umbrella Nuclear umbrella refers to a guarantee by a nuclear weapons state to defend a non-nuclear allied state. * Germany after World War II At the end of the war, Germany was basically divided into 4 sections, each one under the control of one of the Allied powers; The United States, England, France, and Russia. Berlin was divided as well. After a period of rebuilding and reorganization, the sections under the control of the United States, England, and France were returned to the control of the German government. Russia retained control over its section and brought it under the fold of the newly formed USSR. This resulted in the Berlin Wall, and the separate countries of East Germany and West Germany. Following the fall of communism and the breakup of the USSR in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, Germany reunified. * Marshall plan Proposed to rebuild the continent in the interest of political stability and a healthy world economy * viewed as a vehicle for American economic dominance * Iron Curtain * a term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the boundary that separated the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO countries from about 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991 * was both a physical and an ideological division that represented the way Europe was viewed after World War II * Soviet control over Eastern Europe Between 1945 and 1949 Stalin created a Russian empire in Eastern Europe. This empire included Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and East Germany. Each had a Communist government. In the West they were called satellites because they clung closely to the Soviet Union like satellites round a planet. Stalin was able to create this empire for a number of reasons. The first was the military might of the Soviet Union in Europe after 1945. Another reason for the spread of Communism after the war was the gratitude of many Eastern Europeans for their liberation from Nazism. This, and the often-appalling conditions at the end of the war, played into the hands of east European communist parties, which were, of course, backed by Stalin and the Soviet Union. * Decolonization after World War II After WWII Europe tried to reassert its colonial dominance over Africa and the Far East. At the same time national movements grew strong in those colonies. Europe soon realized that they would be unable to physically control the colonies without massive military occupation forces. This was impossible both in economic and political terms. As a result the colonial powers began a staged withdrawal of physical control but maintained economic ties. While these new countries were Ã¢â¬ËindependentÃ¢â¬â¢ their formal colonial masters still had much control over the country. * Impact of World War II on international trade The conclusion of World War II spurred efforts to correct the problems stemming from protectionism, which had increased since 1871, and trade restrictions, which had been imposed between World Wars I and II. The resulting multilateral trade agreements and other forms of international economic cooperation led to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and laid the foundation for the World Trade Organization (WTO). * Impact of World War II on civilian population -One of the most distressing impacts that war has on civilians is the frequent removal of their basic human rights -Huge civilian casualties on front line and bombing attacks -gave people the physiological hope to become as powerful as Hitler did * Consequences of industrialization in the 1800s Mass migration of people from the land to the cities. -Massive building of below standard accommodation, built cheaply, to accommodate them -Massive increase in childhood mortality due to injuries at work, cruelty, the spread of disease, rat population increase, alcohol use and casual neglect of children due to both parents working. -Expansion of the coal industry to include women and children working down the mines. -Exploitation of cheap child labor -Poor diet due to low wages and the collapse of the agricultural economy due to lack of laborers -Slavery in the UK to plug the gaps of missing workers War with France had been ongoing from the late 18th century and was a massive drain on the economy. -The start of the National Debt to pay for the war and the introduction of taxes on booze, tobacco etc. -Explosion in smuggling to counteract the tax increases. * NATO/Warsaw Pact NATO- North Atlantic Trade Organization -led by US; maintain adequate military strength and political unity to deter aggression and other forms of military or political pressure; aimed at a relaxation of tensions between East and West Ã¢â¬â a policy based to a large extent on general military strength. Warsaw Pact -led by USSR; a military treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression. * Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna was convened in 1815 by the four European powers, which had defeated Napoleon. The first goal was to establish a new balance of power in Europe, which would prevent imperialism within Europe, such as the Napoleonic Empire,Ã and maintain the peace between the great powers. The second goal was to prevent political revolutions, such as the French Revolution, and maintain the status quo. * Political ideologies: Conservatives Liberals socialist radicals Conservatism * a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions Liberalism * a political ideology, a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with limited government under the rule of law and generally promotes a laissez-faire economic policy Socialism an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy Radicalism * sought republicanism, abolition of titles, redistribution of property and freedom of the press * Demographic transition after industrialization * dramatic changes in population growth and life expectancy driven by changes in the underlying factors that explain them: fertility increased and mortality decreased * Karl Marx Ã¢â¬â father of socialism an d communism MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas were that of pure equality. He wanted a world where everyone was equal. His theories, while impractical because of the nature of man, were truly Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ . His ultimate goal was to eradicate poverty. * Opium war Ã¢â¬â example of resistance to imperialism * Motives For Imperialism 1. ) Economic Ã¢â¬â motives included the desire to make money, to expand and control foreign trade, to create new markets for products, to acquire raw materials and cheap labor, to compete for investments and resources, and to export industrial technology and transportation methods. . ) Political- motives were based on a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to gain power, to compete with other European countries, to expand territory, to exercise military force, to gain prestige by winning colonies, and to boost national pride and security. 3. ) Religious- motives included the desire to spread Christianity, to protect European missionaries in other lands, to spread European values and moral beliefs, to educate peoples of other cultures , and to end slave trade in Africa. 4. Exploratory- motives were based on the desire to explore unknown or uncharted territory, to conduct scientific research, to conduct medical searches for the causes and treatment of diseases, to go on an adventure, and to investigate unknown lands and cultures. * Impact of imperialism/colonization * large numbers of people were forced into slavery or the system of indentured laborers, and vast areas of natural habitats were cleared and converted to monocultural plantations. * the export of Western values Ã¢â¬â resource exploitation, consumerism and materialism to the colonies How to cite Ap Global Midterm Review, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Every nation exhibits different political behavior. Political behavior depends on the political system adopted by the state and it is through this system that citizens develop political culture and political socialization. Some governments dictate the political culture and socialization of their citizens so that programs and political ideologies can be implemented and structured properly with total support from the people. These types of government usually resort to violence in enforcing reforms and do not tolerate dissent among its people. Though political cultures are dependent on the political system, these are not static. They do change overtime as people acquire new political perspectives based on the experience they developed inside their own political organization or through the political issues encountered by other people in other parts of the world. In the Philippines, political behavior is influenced by many factors and one of the dominant factors is our colonial history. The strong cooperation between the state and the church during the Spanish era left a remarkable deep seated belief to Catholicism that affects our political culture and socialization. Even our political perspectives are attached to the doctrine of Catholicism. The political arena is combined with religious affiliation and political affiliation. The other influence of political behavior which shaped our political culture and socialization is the system introduced by the American government. The republican ideology adopted by the Philippines during the American regime help developed our concepts of what a government should be, its political process and the political participation of people. After the independence, we struggled to keep the ideals of American political behavior but the successions of political leaders have changed or altered our acquired political values. This module will discuss political culture and socialization, its levels and classifications and agents of political socialization. Political behavior Political behavior explains the influences that define the political participation, political views and ideology of a person or group of people in a society. Political behavior is heavily dependent on the political system which in return shapes the political culture and socialization. Political culture Political culture can be defined as the orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, and their perceptions of political legitimacy and the traditions of political practice. In addition, political culture is a public attitude which defines the level of role of the individual within the political system. How the people recognize the importance of participation in the political process will greatly affect the political system. Three levels of political culture 1. System level Ã¢â¬â attitudes towards the organization of the system Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Examples: National pride, national identity and legitimacy of government 2. Process level Ã¢â¬â what the public expects from the political process Examples: Principles of government, role of citizens, perceptions of political rights Ã The level of involvement of the citizens in the political process. How citizens view their political roles. Types of political culture 1. Participant Ã¢â¬â citizens are involved in the actual political process and because of their active participation they are able to influence the government in various ways. 2. Subject Ã¢â¬â citizens are passively involved in the operation of government and because of passive involvement there is little scope for dissent. 3. Parochial Ã¢â¬â citizens are not aware or hardly aware of government and its policies and live regardless of the decisions taken by the state. 3. Policy level Ã¢â¬â attitudes and expectations towards policy and implementation Examples: Role of government and government policy priorities 1. Cultural congruence Ã¢â¬â it rests on the idea that political system depends on the culture of a nation and that some political structure may not be acceptable to other nations. Cultural congruence may be possible if leaders and citizens alike respect the diversity of culture and political ideologies. 2. Consensual political culture Ã¢â¬âcitizens tend to agree on the appropriate means of making political decisions and on how to solve problems that may arise out of the decisions 3. Conflictual political culture Ã¢â¬â citizens are sharply divided on both the legitimacy of the regime and the solutions to major problem. 4. Political subcultures Ã¢â¬â often emerge when deeply divided political conflict persists over time. Classifying political cultures 1. 1. Democratic political culture * Tolerate diverse points of view including unpopular or dissenting opinions * Respects political rights of the citizens * Backs up moderation, accommodation, restrained partisanship system loyalty and trust 1. 2. Consensual culture * Citizens tend to agree on basic political procedures * Citizens support government policies and how to solve them 1. 3. Conflictual culture * Highly polarized by fundamental differences * Deep ideological divisions Other cultural classifications 1. Revolutionary or Marxist political culture 2. Confucian political culture 3. Hindu culture 4. Islamic culture Philippine political culture For decades Philippine political culture has not improved in a level that other Asian nations have improved. Though we prided ourselves as having a highest literacy rate in Asia, Filipinos displayed illiteracy level when it comes to their expression of political participation and selection. The manner to which they exercise their political rights is uncivilized as evident of the electoral fraud and other political killings. Political leaders are elected on the basis of family name, popularity and social status and political institutions are dealt with by political leaders and the elites as if they owned it or part of their business empire. Leon Ma. Guerrero expressed his analysis of Philippine political culture: The experience of the FilipinosÃ¢â¬ ¦had been of parties that were not parties but unprincipled coalitions of the rich, the powerful and the unscrupulous; of elections that were essentially meaningless exercises in fraud, terrorism, bribery and demagoguery; of politicians who represented no one but themselves. The peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity for self-government had been trapped in a political mechanism they had not learned to work or control, and their capacity for indignation and generosity, sacrifice and service to the country, left to wither and decay. Lewis GleeckÃ¢â¬â¢s view The Philippine political culture isÃ¢â¬ ¦personalistic but violent, religious but superstitious, corrupt but tolerant, hierarchical but distributionist, solicitous of form but not of content, legalistic but careless of equity, media obsessed and nationalistically vociferous with respect to rights but negligent to obligations. American author David Timberman (1991; 22) also explained his observation of Filipino political culture: The exclusiveness of the Filipino family, the importance of patron-client ties, and the strength of regional and linguistic affinities cause Filipino politics to be highly personalistic and particularisticÃ¢â¬ ¦Most Filipinos believe that the decisions and events that shape their lives are determined more by particular individuals that by impersonal systems and institutions. Consequently, the maintenance of good personal relations with those in powers is critical. As a result of the personalization of public life there has been relatively little concern with institutions or ideologies on the part of leaders or the public. Political socialization It is the process whereby individuals become aware of tenets of political culture, political facts and political values. Active and direct political socialization of individuals must be properly supported by the state because it is the state that is responsible for teaching, and shaping the political attitudes of the citizens.