Sunday, May 24, 2020
Oscar Madera Dr. Amaya-Anderson ENGL 103 8 May 2016 Dissecting Gender Roles in A Streetcar Named Desire The representation of gender roles is among the most prominent recurring subjects in theatre, literature and expressive art as we know it. Gender, and what it means to human beings, is a subject that is as difficult to precisely define as death, race, and the concept of existence. Anne Beall, Ph.D. graduate in Social Psychology at Yale University, details in her book The Psychology of Gender that Ã¢â¬Å"Gender is socially defined masculinity and femininity. Social psychology studies how gender is defined, created, and maintained through social influence, especially in the course of social interactionÃ¢â¬ (Beall; 10). The nature of gender roles is ultimately dictated by temporal, societal, biological and even geographical dimensions that are out of our control and though it is a given that gender as a concept has kept as relevant as it is ancient, there has only been under a hundred years of significant progress or general awarene ss on the matter. The subject matter of important art in any given time period is a reflection of that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s most urgent struggles and the topic of gender has remained a constant across human history. The physical and emotional features of characters in art and literature are manifestations of the creatorÃ¢â¬â¢s perception on subjects such race and gender. The message that a creator seeks to deliver on a topic, determines how they will convey the thoughts,
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
William Edward Burkhardt DuBois, whom we all know as W.E.B. DuBois; was a novelist, public speaker, poet, editor, author, leader, teacher, scholar, and romantic. He graduated from high school at the age of 16, and was selected as the valedictorian, being that he was the only black in his graduating class of 12. He was orphaned shortly after his graduation and was forced to fund his own college education. He was a pioneer in black political thoughts and known by many as a main figure in the history of African-American politics. W.E.B. DuBois attended Fisk University, where he was awarded a scholarship after he graduated high school. Fisk University was located in Nashville, Tennessee. While attending this University, this is where he sawÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In the years following the founding of the NAACP, DuBois was introduced into controversy as he joined the Socialists Party. DuBois became a candidate for the United States Senate on the American Labor (Communist) Party ti cket. He also wrote letters, novels, and opinion excerpts as well as organized the first meeting of the Pan-African Congress, the purpose of the Congress was to improve the situation of native Africans. DuBois also initiated the concept of the talented tenth the talented tenth was where he called for ten percent of the African American population where he lived to receive a traditional college education so they could have leadership positions and assume leadership positions within society and within their communities. Dr. W. E. B. DuBois was known as an African American hero who truly believed that a persons vocational calling should be dictated by ability and choice, not by race. DuBois, unlike Booker T. Washington, not only demanded an immediate change but also drastic change, and was not afraid to challenge both blacks and whites on social and educational issues to accomplish change because he knew at that point, something needed to happen now. His strong activism and courage set the stage for future changes in the African American and White American race relations. In 1934 DuBois resigned from the NAACP staff in simply because he was not willing to advocate racialShow MoreRelatedB. Dubois And Booker T. Washington Essay2331 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesW.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington The end of the Civil War was followed almost immediately by a new wave that would see the African Americans face great suffering and discrimination. As newly freed slaves, African Americans were presented with a dilemma to either curve a new niche in a society that once viewed and treated them as mere properties than humans. It was during these difficult times that two key figures in the African American History rose as paramount leaders of two sharply contrastingRead MorePoetrys Influences on the Harlem Renaissance2031 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesspent a year in Mexico with his father who disliked his passion for writing and urged him to stop. At that time Hughes was beginning to get published in a number of places like magazines and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s book. During this time he was noticed but W.E.B Dubois. Upon Hughes return to America he enrolled in Colombia University in New York. Hughes did not like the atmosphere at Colombia so after a year he left. After Columbia he moved to New Yo rk and began work on a freighter. This job took him to manyRead More The Civil Rights Movements in Ireland and America Essay4811 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pagesof an oppressed people a civil rights movement was essential. Ã¢â¬Å"It was necessary to bravely confront our most explosive issues as a people: Racial[religious, gender, class...] hierarchy and the maldistribution of wealth and power.Ã¢â¬ 1If only for a brief moment we achieved this, at least it happened. We must study the past in order to get to the future. If you dont know where you came from, how can you possibly figure out where you are going and that is why many people stay rooted in the same placeRead MoreLena Horne9265 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pagesa triumph. Lena Mary Calhoun Horne was born June 30, 1917, in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Both sides of her family claimed a mixture of African-Americans, Native Americans, and Caucasians, and both were part of what black leader W.E.B. DuBois called the talented tenth, the upper stratum of the American black population made up of middle-class, well-educated African-Americans. Her parents, however, might both be described as mavericks from that tradition. Her father, Edwin FletcherRead MoreHaving Our Say Essay9582 Words Ã |Ã 39 PagesÃ ©2000-2011 BookRags, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. The following sections of this BookRags Literature Study Guide is offprint from Gales For Students Series: Presenting Analysis, Context, and Criticism on Commonly Studied Works: Introduction, Author Biography, Plot Summary, Characters, Themes, Style, Historical Context, Critical Overview, Criticism and Critical Essays, Media Adaptations, Topics for Further Study, Compare Contrast, What Do I Read Next?, For Further Study, and Sources. (c)1998-2002;Read MoreLangston Hughes Research Paper25309 Words Ã |Ã 102 Pagesassociating with whites in restaurants, theaters, and trains. If blacks were permitted to enter a facility, they had to use a separate entrance and sit in a separate section. Langston became an avid reader. His favorite magazine was Crisis, published by W.E.B. Du Bois, whose essays urged African Americans to preserve their heritage and to reject integration into the white community. Langstons favorite newspaper was the Chicago Defender, which published stories about racially motivated lynchings and otherRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesrequiredÃ¢â¬âinteraction between the colonial rulers and the local, colonized people in offices, shops, industries, and schools, although not as much in recreation. The results of this interaction were unpredictable. In addition to the social science literature, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, drama, and films are filled with the stories of indigenous people and colonial rulers who were transformed in one way or another through their interactions with the diverse residents and the institutions of the European
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Global Midterm review * Changes to map of Europe after WWI/WWII- new countries formed After WWI Only two completely new countries in Europe were formed after WW1 Ã¢â¬â Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Poland, which had been wiped off the map in 1795, was revived. The Baltic republics Ã¢â¬â Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania asserted their independence. We will write a custom essay sample on Ap Global Midterm Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now Romania doubled in size. After WWII To a great extent, no new countries were formed after World War II. Most of these changes occurred in the East. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, only just winning independence after WWI were erased as independent states and became part of the Soviet Union. PolandÃ¢â¬â¢s borders were moved eastward to include only the Ã¢â¬Å"corridorÃ¢â¬ from before the war but also parts of East Prussia, Pomerania, and Silesia, though they also lost the eastern parts of their country to the Soviet Union. Austria and Czechoslovakia, states created by the end of WWI but annexed to Nazi Germany in the 1930s reappeared, though Czechoslovakia was firmly under Soviet domination and the Austrians were forced to remain neutral during the growing Cold War. In Europe the only country divided was Germany. * Conservatism in western politics Conservatives, such as AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Prince Klemens von Metternich, were bent on maintaining the sanctity of traditional political institutions, particularly the monarchy. It was also their goal to maintain a balance of power in Europe in order to ensure a permanent peace. * Welfare state Welfare State and Consumer Society A. The motives for the welfare state 1. protection against depression and political extremism 2. the argument for social justice B. Features of the welfare state 1. support Ã¢â¬Ëfrom cradle to graveÃ¢â¬â¢ 2. educational and cultural opportunities C. The growth of consumer society 1. a new standard of living 2. materialism and hedonism 3. the end of public life? * Nuclear umbrella Nuclear umbrella refers to a guarantee by a nuclear weapons state to defend a non-nuclear allied state. * Germany after World War II At the end of the war, Germany was basically divided into 4 sections, each one under the control of one of the Allied powers; The United States, England, France, and Russia. Berlin was divided as well. After a period of rebuilding and reorganization, the sections under the control of the United States, England, and France were returned to the control of the German government. Russia retained control over its section and brought it under the fold of the newly formed USSR. This resulted in the Berlin Wall, and the separate countries of East Germany and West Germany. Following the fall of communism and the breakup of the USSR in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, Germany reunified. * Marshall plan Proposed to rebuild the continent in the interest of political stability and a healthy world economy * viewed as a vehicle for American economic dominance * Iron Curtain * a term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the boundary that separated the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO countries from about 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991 * was both a physical and an ideological division that represented the way Europe was viewed after World War II * Soviet control over Eastern Europe Between 1945 and 1949 Stalin created a Russian empire in Eastern Europe. This empire included Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and East Germany. Each had a Communist government. In the West they were called satellites because they clung closely to the Soviet Union like satellites round a planet. Stalin was able to create this empire for a number of reasons. The first was the military might of the Soviet Union in Europe after 1945. Another reason for the spread of Communism after the war was the gratitude of many Eastern Europeans for their liberation from Nazism. This, and the often-appalling conditions at the end of the war, played into the hands of east European communist parties, which were, of course, backed by Stalin and the Soviet Union. * Decolonization after World War II After WWII Europe tried to reassert its colonial dominance over Africa and the Far East. At the same time national movements grew strong in those colonies. Europe soon realized that they would be unable to physically control the colonies without massive military occupation forces. This was impossible both in economic and political terms. As a result the colonial powers began a staged withdrawal of physical control but maintained economic ties. While these new countries were Ã¢â¬ËindependentÃ¢â¬â¢ their formal colonial masters still had much control over the country. * Impact of World War II on international trade The conclusion of World War II spurred efforts to correct the problems stemming from protectionism, which had increased since 1871, and trade restrictions, which had been imposed between World Wars I and II. The resulting multilateral trade agreements and other forms of international economic cooperation led to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and laid the foundation for the World Trade Organization (WTO). * Impact of World War II on civilian population -One of the most distressing impacts that war has on civilians is the frequent removal of their basic human rights -Huge civilian casualties on front line and bombing attacks -gave people the physiological hope to become as powerful as Hitler did * Consequences of industrialization in the 1800s Mass migration of people from the land to the cities. -Massive building of below standard accommodation, built cheaply, to accommodate them -Massive increase in childhood mortality due to injuries at work, cruelty, the spread of disease, rat population increase, alcohol use and casual neglect of children due to both parents working. -Expansion of the coal industry to include women and children working down the mines. -Exploitation of cheap child labor -Poor diet due to low wages and the collapse of the agricultural economy due to lack of laborers -Slavery in the UK to plug the gaps of missing workers War with France had been ongoing from the late 18th century and was a massive drain on the economy. -The start of the National Debt to pay for the war and the introduction of taxes on booze, tobacco etc. -Explosion in smuggling to counteract the tax increases. * NATO/Warsaw Pact NATO- North Atlantic Trade Organization -led by US; maintain adequate military strength and political unity to deter aggression and other forms of military or political pressure; aimed at a relaxation of tensions between East and West Ã¢â¬â a policy based to a large extent on general military strength. Warsaw Pact -led by USSR; a military treaty, which bound its signatories to come to the aid of the others, should any one of them be the victim of foreign aggression. * Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna was convened in 1815 by the four European powers, which had defeated Napoleon. The first goal was to establish a new balance of power in Europe, which would prevent imperialism within Europe, such as the Napoleonic Empire,Ã and maintain the peace between the great powers. The second goal was to prevent political revolutions, such as the French Revolution, and maintain the status quo. * Political ideologies: Conservatives Liberals socialist radicals Conservatism * a political and social philosophy that promotes retaining traditional social institutions Liberalism * a political ideology, a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties and political freedom with limited government under the rule of law and generally promotes a laissez-faire economic policy Socialism an economic system characterized by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy Radicalism * sought republicanism, abolition of titles, redistribution of property and freedom of the press * Demographic transition after industrialization * dramatic changes in population growth and life expectancy driven by changes in the underlying factors that explain them: fertility increased and mortality decreased * Karl Marx Ã¢â¬â father of socialism an d communism MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas were that of pure equality. He wanted a world where everyone was equal. His theories, while impractical because of the nature of man, were truly Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ . His ultimate goal was to eradicate poverty. * Opium war Ã¢â¬â example of resistance to imperialism * Motives For Imperialism 1. ) Economic Ã¢â¬â motives included the desire to make money, to expand and control foreign trade, to create new markets for products, to acquire raw materials and cheap labor, to compete for investments and resources, and to export industrial technology and transportation methods. . ) Political- motives were based on a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to gain power, to compete with other European countries, to expand territory, to exercise military force, to gain prestige by winning colonies, and to boost national pride and security. 3. ) Religious- motives included the desire to spread Christianity, to protect European missionaries in other lands, to spread European values and moral beliefs, to educate peoples of other cultures , and to end slave trade in Africa. 4. Exploratory- motives were based on the desire to explore unknown or uncharted territory, to conduct scientific research, to conduct medical searches for the causes and treatment of diseases, to go on an adventure, and to investigate unknown lands and cultures. * Impact of imperialism/colonization * large numbers of people were forced into slavery or the system of indentured laborers, and vast areas of natural habitats were cleared and converted to monocultural plantations. * the export of Western values Ã¢â¬â resource exploitation, consumerism and materialism to the colonies How to cite Ap Global Midterm Review, Papers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Every nation exhibits different political behavior. Political behavior depends on the political system adopted by the state and it is through this system that citizens develop political culture and political socialization. Some governments dictate the political culture and socialization of their citizens so that programs and political ideologies can be implemented and structured properly with total support from the people. These types of government usually resort to violence in enforcing reforms and do not tolerate dissent among its people. Though political cultures are dependent on the political system, these are not static. They do change overtime as people acquire new political perspectives based on the experience they developed inside their own political organization or through the political issues encountered by other people in other parts of the world. In the Philippines, political behavior is influenced by many factors and one of the dominant factors is our colonial history. The strong cooperation between the state and the church during the Spanish era left a remarkable deep seated belief to Catholicism that affects our political culture and socialization. Even our political perspectives are attached to the doctrine of Catholicism. The political arena is combined with religious affiliation and political affiliation. The other influence of political behavior which shaped our political culture and socialization is the system introduced by the American government. The republican ideology adopted by the Philippines during the American regime help developed our concepts of what a government should be, its political process and the political participation of people. After the independence, we struggled to keep the ideals of American political behavior but the successions of political leaders have changed or altered our acquired political values. This module will discuss political culture and socialization, its levels and classifications and agents of political socialization. Political behavior Political behavior explains the influences that define the political participation, political views and ideology of a person or group of people in a society. Political behavior is heavily dependent on the political system which in return shapes the political culture and socialization. Political culture Political culture can be defined as the orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, and their perceptions of political legitimacy and the traditions of political practice. In addition, political culture is a public attitude which defines the level of role of the individual within the political system. How the people recognize the importance of participation in the political process will greatly affect the political system. Three levels of political culture 1. System level Ã¢â¬â attitudes towards the organization of the system Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Examples: National pride, national identity and legitimacy of government 2. Process level Ã¢â¬â what the public expects from the political process Examples: Principles of government, role of citizens, perceptions of political rights Ã The level of involvement of the citizens in the political process. How citizens view their political roles. Types of political culture 1. Participant Ã¢â¬â citizens are involved in the actual political process and because of their active participation they are able to influence the government in various ways. 2. Subject Ã¢â¬â citizens are passively involved in the operation of government and because of passive involvement there is little scope for dissent. 3. Parochial Ã¢â¬â citizens are not aware or hardly aware of government and its policies and live regardless of the decisions taken by the state. 3. Policy level Ã¢â¬â attitudes and expectations towards policy and implementation Examples: Role of government and government policy priorities 1. Cultural congruence Ã¢â¬â it rests on the idea that political system depends on the culture of a nation and that some political structure may not be acceptable to other nations. Cultural congruence may be possible if leaders and citizens alike respect the diversity of culture and political ideologies. 2. Consensual political culture Ã¢â¬âcitizens tend to agree on the appropriate means of making political decisions and on how to solve problems that may arise out of the decisions 3. Conflictual political culture Ã¢â¬â citizens are sharply divided on both the legitimacy of the regime and the solutions to major problem. 4. Political subcultures Ã¢â¬â often emerge when deeply divided political conflict persists over time. Classifying political cultures 1. 1. Democratic political culture * Tolerate diverse points of view including unpopular or dissenting opinions * Respects political rights of the citizens * Backs up moderation, accommodation, restrained partisanship system loyalty and trust 1. 2. Consensual culture * Citizens tend to agree on basic political procedures * Citizens support government policies and how to solve them 1. 3. Conflictual culture * Highly polarized by fundamental differences * Deep ideological divisions Other cultural classifications 1. Revolutionary or Marxist political culture 2. Confucian political culture 3. Hindu culture 4. Islamic culture Philippine political culture For decades Philippine political culture has not improved in a level that other Asian nations have improved. Though we prided ourselves as having a highest literacy rate in Asia, Filipinos displayed illiteracy level when it comes to their expression of political participation and selection. The manner to which they exercise their political rights is uncivilized as evident of the electoral fraud and other political killings. Political leaders are elected on the basis of family name, popularity and social status and political institutions are dealt with by political leaders and the elites as if they owned it or part of their business empire. Leon Ma. Guerrero expressed his analysis of Philippine political culture: The experience of the FilipinosÃ¢â¬ ¦had been of parties that were not parties but unprincipled coalitions of the rich, the powerful and the unscrupulous; of elections that were essentially meaningless exercises in fraud, terrorism, bribery and demagoguery; of politicians who represented no one but themselves. The peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity for self-government had been trapped in a political mechanism they had not learned to work or control, and their capacity for indignation and generosity, sacrifice and service to the country, left to wither and decay. Lewis GleeckÃ¢â¬â¢s view The Philippine political culture isÃ¢â¬ ¦personalistic but violent, religious but superstitious, corrupt but tolerant, hierarchical but distributionist, solicitous of form but not of content, legalistic but careless of equity, media obsessed and nationalistically vociferous with respect to rights but negligent to obligations. American author David Timberman (1991; 22) also explained his observation of Filipino political culture: The exclusiveness of the Filipino family, the importance of patron-client ties, and the strength of regional and linguistic affinities cause Filipino politics to be highly personalistic and particularisticÃ¢â¬ ¦Most Filipinos believe that the decisions and events that shape their lives are determined more by particular individuals that by impersonal systems and institutions. Consequently, the maintenance of good personal relations with those in powers is critical. As a result of the personalization of public life there has been relatively little concern with institutions or ideologies on the part of leaders or the public. Political socialization It is the process whereby individuals become aware of tenets of political culture, political facts and political values. Active and direct political socialization of individuals must be properly supported by the state because it is the state that is responsible for teaching, and shaping the political attitudes of the citizens.
Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Bigger Better Faster Foundations of Paradise by Arthur C Clarke essays Man has always longed to build things, and as time goes on, man feels the need to outdo all previous achievements. Arthur C. Clarke's novel, Foundations of Paradise is a good example of this human characteristic. Vannevar Morgan is an engineer living in the twenty second century, and is known by his peers to be one of the greatest engineers in the world. The creation that gave Morgan this title was the Gibraltar Bridge, connecting Europe to Africa. This bridge is situated five kilometers above the water of the Mediterranean Sea. Dr. Morgan has in his head yet another idea that will become his final and greatest mark on the world. A new substance has been developed through years of research. It is a microcrystaline fiber that is extraordinarily strong and ten times narrower than a human hair. Morgan's idea is to use this material to build an elevator to hoist things into orbit of the Earth. This way, no rockets will be needed to blast things into orbit. Much money will be saved, along with a dramatic decrease in pollution. Morgan knows many people who have faith in his plan, including the World Bank, although many doubt the feasibility of his ideas. I can relate to this because I tend to "dream big" also. Many of my ideas are very grandiose and many times, I have a hard time explaining them to other people. I have found though, like Vannevar Morgan, if I keep one of my ideas in my mind for long enough and think it out, it has a good chance of coming true. It seems like the number of difficulties encountered when an idea is put into place is directly relative to the outcome of the completed idea. A simple idea with little benefit will typically not encounter many problems in production. A grandiose idea with earth-shaking benefits, on the other hand, will have many obstacles to overcome before completion. This rule applies very heavily to the space elevator concept. It turns out that the place on which the ...
Saturday, March 7, 2020
3 Stoic Strategies For Becoming Happier Stoicism was one of the most important philosophical schools in ancient Greece and Rome.Ã It has also been one of the most influential.Ã The writings of Stoic thinkers like Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius have been read and taken to be heart by scholars and statesman for two thousand years. In his short but extremely readable book A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy (Oxford University Press, 2009), William Irvine argues that Stoicism is a admirable and coherent philosophy of life.Ã Ã He also claims that many of us would be happier if we became Stoics.Ã This is a remarkable claim.Ã How can the theory and practice of a philosophical school founded fifteen hundred years before the industrial revolution have anything relevant to say to us today, living in our constantly changing, technology dominated world? Irvine has many things to say in response to that question.Ã But the most interesting part of his answer is his account of specific strategies that the Stoics recommend we all use on a daily basis.Ã Three of these in particular are especially important: negative visualization; internalization of goals; and regular self-denial. Negative visualization Epictetus recommends that when parents kiss a child goodnight, they consider the possibility that the child might die during the night.Ã And when you say goodbye to a friend, say the Stoics, remind yourself that you perhaps you will never meet again. Along the same lines, you might imagine the home you live being destroyed by fire or by a tornado, the job you rely on being eliminated, or the beautiful car you have just bought being crushed by a runaway truck. Why entertain these unpleasant thought?Ã What good can come from this practice of what Irvine calls Ã¢â¬Å"negative visualizationÃ¢â¬ ?Ã Well, here are a few possible benefits of imagining the worst that can happen: Anticipating misfortunes can lead you to take preventative measures.Ã E.g. Imagining your family dying of carbon monoxide poisoning may prompt to you install a carbon monoxide detector.If you have already imagined how something awful might happen, if it does occur you will less shocked.Ã We are all familiar with this on a mundane level.Ã Many people, if they take an exam, imagine or even convince themselves that they have done badly so that if it turns out that this is the truth, they will be less disappointed.Ã Negative visualization, here and elsewhere, prepares us mentally and emotionally to deal with unpleasant experiences when they arriveÃ¢â¬âas they inevitably will.Contemplating the loss of something helps us to appreciate it more fully.Ã We are all familiar with the way we have a tendency to take things for granted.Ã When we first buy a new house, car, guitar, smart phone, shirt, or whatever, we think itÃ¢â¬â¢s wonderful.Ã But within a fairly short ti me the novelty wears off and we no longer find it exciting, or even interesting.Ã Psychologists call this Ã¢â¬Å"hedonic adaptation.Ã¢â¬ But imagining the loss of the thing in question is a way of refreshing our appreciation of it.Ã ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a technique that help us to follow EpictetusÃ¢â¬â¢ advice and learn to want what we already have. Of these arguments for practicing negative visualization, the third is probably the most important and the most convincing.Ã And it goes well beyond such things as newly purchased technology. There is so much in life to be grateful for, yet we often find ourselves complaining that things arenÃ¢â¬â¢t perfect.Ã But anyone reading this article is probably living the sort of life that most people through history would have viewed as inconceivably pleasant.Ã Little need to worry about famine, plague, war, or brutal oppression.Ã Anesthetics; antibiotics; modern medicine; instant communication with anyone anywhere; the ability to get to just about anywhereÃ in the world in a few hours; a vast amount of great art, literature, music, and science available through the internet at the touch a of key.Ã The list of things to be grateful for is almost infinite.Ã Negative visualization reminds us that we are Ã¢â¬Å"living the dream.Ã¢â¬ Internalization of goals We live in a culture that puts tremendous value of worldly success.Ã So people strive to get into elite universities, to make lost of money, to create a successful business, to become famous, to achieve high status in their work, to win prizes, and so on.Ã The problem with all these goals, though, is that whether or not one succeeds depends in large part on factors outside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s control. Suppose your goal is to win an Olympic medal.Ã You can commit yourself to this goal entirely, and if you have enough natural ability you may make yourself one of the best athletes in the world.Ã But whether or not you win a medal depends on many things, including who you are competing with.Ã If you happen to be competing against athletes who have certain natural advantages over youÃ¢â¬âe.g. physiques and physiologies better suited to your sportÃ¢â¬âthen a medal may simply be beyond you.Ã The same goes for other goals, too.Ã If you want to become famous as a musician, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough just to make great music.Ã Your music has to reach the ears of millions of people; and they have to like it.Ã These are not matters you can easily control. For this reason the Stoics advise us to carefully distinguish between things that lie within our control and things that lie beyond our control.Ã Their view is that we should focus entirely on the former.Ã Thus, we should concern ourselves with what we choose to strive for, with being the kind of person we want to be, and with living according to sound values.Ã These are all goals that depend entirely on us, not on how the world is or how it treats us. Thus, if IÃ¢â¬â¢m a musician, my goal shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be to have a number one hit, or to sell a million records, to play at Carnegie Hall or to perform at the Super Bowl.Ã Instead, my goal should just be to make the best music I can within my chosen genre.Ã Of course, if I try to do this I will increase my chances of public recognition and worldly success.Ã But if these donÃ¢â¬â¢t come my way, I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have failed, and I shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel especially disappointed.Ã For I will still have achieved the goal I set myself. Practicing self-denial The Stoics argue that sometimes we should deliberately deprive ourselves of certain pleasures.Ã For example, if we usually have dessert after a meal, we might forego this once every few days; we might even once in a while substitute bread, cheese and water for our normal, more interesting dinners.Ã The Stoics even advocate subjecting oneself to voluntary discomfort.Ã One might, for instance, not eat for a day, underdress during cold weather, try sleeping on the floor, or take the occasional cold shower. What is the point of this kind of self-denial?Ã Why do such things?Ã The reasons are actually similar to the reasons for practicing negative visualization.Ã Self-denial toughens us up, so that if we have to deal with involuntary hardship or discomfort we will be able to do so.Ã There is really a very familiar idea.Ã It is why the army makes boot camp so hard.Ã The thinking is that if soldiers become accustomed to hardship on a regular basis, they will cope better with it when being able to do so really matters.Ã And this sort of thinking by military leaders goes back at least to ancient Sparta.Ã Indeed, the militaristic Spartans were so convinced that depriving men of luxuries made them better soldiers that this sort of denial came to be integral to their whole way of life.Ã Even today, the word Ã¢â¬Å"SpartanÃ¢â¬ means lacking luxuries.Self-denial helps us to appreciate the pleasures, comforts and conveniences that we enjoy all the time and are in danger of taking for granted.Ã Most of will probably agree with thisÃ¢â¬âin theory!Ã But the problem with putting the theory into practice, of course, is that the experience of voluntary discomfort isÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âuncomfortable.Ã Still, perhaps some awareness of the value of self-denial is part of the reason why people choose to go camping, or backpacking. But are the Stoics right? The arguments for practicing these Stoic strategies sound very plausible.Ã But should they be believed?Ã Will negative visualization, internalizing goals, and practicing self-denial really help us to be happier?Ã The most likely answer is that it depends to some extent on the individual.Ã Negative visualization may help some people to appreciate more fully the things they presently enjoy.Ã But it could lead to others becoming increasingly anxious over the prospect of losing what they love.Ã Shakespeare, in Sonnet 64, after describing several examples of TimeÃ¢â¬â¢s destructiveness, concludes: Time hath taught me thus to ruminateThat Time will come and take my love away.This thought is as a death, which cannot chooseBut weep to have that which it fears to lose. It seems that for the poet negative visualization is not a strategy for happiness; on the contrary, it causes anxiety and leads him to be even more attached to that which he will one day lose. The internalization of goals seems very reasonable on the face of it: do your best, and accept the fact that objective success depends on factors you canÃ¢â¬â¢t control.Ã Yet surely, the prospect of objective successÃ¢â¬âan Olympic medal; makingÃ money; having a hit record; winning a prestigious prizeÃ¢â¬âcan be tremendously motivating.Ã Perhaps there are some people who care nothing for such external markers of success; but most of us do.Ã And itÃ¢â¬â¢s surely true that many wonderful human achievements have been fueled, at least in part, by the desire for them. Self-denial is not especially appealing to most people.Ã Yet there is som reason to suppose that it really does do us the sort of good that the Stoics claimed for it.Ã A well-known experiment done by Stanford psychologists in the 1970s involved having young children see how long they could hold off eating a marshmallow for the sake of getting an additional reward (such as a cookie in addition to the marshmallow).Ã The surprising upshot of the research was that those individuals who were best able to delay gratification did better in later life on a number of measures such as educational achievement and general health.Ã This seems to bear out will power isÃ like a muscle, and that exercising the muscle through self-denial builds self-control, a key ingredient of a happy life.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Organizing a two-hour training seminar - Essay Example The company has since confirmed our request thus assigning us one of their renowned teacher, Deb Walker. Besides assigning us a teacher, the company has confirmed the date, time and venue for the seminar. The date remains 16 October 2014 as from 2PM to 4PM at the facilityÃ¢â¬â¢s hall. I have made all the necessary arrangements including securing the resources, the venue and communicating the seminar progress to all the employees of the hospital. The seminar is therefore on course, as you had desired. Kindly note that we, at Broadworth General Hospital have received confirmation from your company that you will be offering a public lecture to our staff, topics we seek to cover teach will include sexual harassment and unlawful discrimination. We have therefore secured all the resources you will need for the training and therefore anticipate your arrival. The seminar will take place at the hospitalÃ¢â¬â¢s hall on 16 October 2014 as from 2PM to